Graphics

A video card (also called a video adapter, display card, graphics card, graphics board, display adapter or graphics adapter and sometimes preceded by the word discrete or dedicated to emphasize the distinction between this implementation and integrated graphics) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor). Within the industry, video cards are sometimes called graphics add-in-boards, abbreviated as AIBs, with the word "graphics" usually omitted. Virtually all current video cards are built with either AMD-sourced or Nvidia-sourced graphics chips. Most video cards offer various functions such as accelerated rendering of 3D scenes and 2D graphics, MPEG-2/MPEG-4 decoding, TV output, or the ability to connect multiple monitors (multi-monitor).

Dedicated vs integrated graphics

As an alternative to the use of a video card, video hardware can be integrated into the motherboard or the CPU. Both approaches can be called integrated graphics. Motherboard-based implementations are sometimes called "on-board video" while CPU-based implementations are called accelerated processing units or APUs. Almost all motherboards with integrated graphics allow the disabling of the integrated graphics chip in BIOS, and have a PCI, or PCI Express(PCI-E) slot for adding a higher-performance graphics card in place of the integrated graphics. The ability to disable the integrated graphics sometimes also allows the continued use of a motherboard on which the on-board video has failed. Sometimes both the integrated graphics and a dedicated graphics card can be used simultaneously to feed separate displays. The main advantages of integrated graphics include cost, compactness, simplicity and low energy consumption. The performance disadvantage of integrated graphics arises because the graphics processor shares system resources with the CPU. A dedicated graphics card has its own random access memory (RAM), its own cooling system, and dedicated power regulators, with all components designed specifically for processing video images. Upgrading to a dedicated graphics card offloads work from the CPU and system RAM, so not only will graphics processing be faster, but the computer's overall performance may also improve.

Both of the dominant CPU makers, AMD and Intel, are moving to APUs. One of the reasons is that graphics processors are powerful parallel processors, and placing them on the CPU die allows their parallel processing ability to be harnessed for various computing tasks in addition to graphics processing. (See Heterogeneous System Architecture, which discusses AMD's implementation.) APUs are the newer integrated graphics technology and, as costs decline, will probably be used instead of integrated graphics on the motherboard in most future low and mid-priced home and business computers. As of late 2013, the best APUs provide graphics processing equivalent to mid-range video cards and are adequate for casual gaming. Users seeking the highest video performance for gaming or other graphics-intensive uses should still choose computers with dedicated graphics cards.

As the processing power of video cards has increased, so has their demand for electrical power. Current high-performance video cards tend to consume a great deal of power. For example, the thermal design power (TDP) for the GeForce GTX TITAN is 250 Watts. While CPU and power supply makers have recently moved toward higher efficiency, power demands of GPUs have continued to rise, so the video card may be the biggest electricity user in a computer. Although power supplies are increasing their power too, the bottleneck is due to the PCI-Express connection, which is limited to supplying 75 Watts. Modern video cards with a power consumption over 75 Watts usually include a combination of six-pin (75W) or eight-pin (150W) sockets that connect directly to the power supply. While manufacturers of high-end video cards may recommend a minimum power supply of 500 Watts in a computer, a power supply of at least 750 Watts is typical in a gaming computer with a single high end video card. Providing adequate cooling becomes a challenge in such computers. Computers with multiple video cards may need power supplies in the 1000W-1500W range. Heat extraction becomes a major design consideration for computers with two or more high end video cards.

Size

Video cards for desktop computers come in 2 size profiles, to allow adding a graphics card to even small form factor PCs. These sizes are regular and low-profile video cards. the profiles are based on width only, with low-profile card taking up less than the full width of a PCIe slot. The length and thickness vary greatly, high-end cards usually occupy 2 or 3 expansion slots, and vary greatly in length, with dual-gpu cards -such as the Nvidia GeForce GTX 690- generally over 10" in length.

Multi-card scaling

Some graphics cards can be linked together to allow scaling of the graphics processing across multiple cards. This is done using either the PCIe bus on the motherboard, or, more commonly, a data bridge. Generally, the cards must be of the same model to be linked, and most low power cards are not able to be linked in this way. AMD and Nvidia both have proprietary methods of scaling, CrossfireX for AMD, and SLI for Nvidia. Cards from different manufacturers and/or architectures cannot be used together for multi card scaling. Currently, scaling can be done using up to four cards.

Device drivers

The device driver usually supports one or multiple Application programming interfaces (APIs) like OpenGL, Direct3D, or Mantle, and the architecture of a GPU-family. A device driver has to be specifically written for an operating system.

FM Laptop 713X BDA TVCard PCMCIA TV Tuner Video Capture Cardbus Card Driver

The Smart TV Card is the newest TV receiving/video capturing card designed for notebook. It utilizes the newest Philips Silicon Tuner which can support all worldwide TV standards. The Notebook with our Smart TV Card can receive local programs whenever and wherever. It incorporates MPEG 2 software encoders to enable high quality recordings of your favorite programs direct to your hard drive. You can even play your PS2/XBox console or DVD/VHS players through this TV Card, and record or capture them to digital video on your hard drive.

Nvidia Drivers for Windows 2000/XP

Even though Windows NT 4.0 was mainly on business and school systems, you could still play all those 3D FPS games with a good graphics card. Not as common as gaming on Windows 95 but some people *cough* *cough* would play those games at work, and Windows NT 4.0 with all the service packs installed was pretty darn good and was the same base code as Windows 2000 and XP.

Nvidia Drivers for Windows NT 4.0

Even though Windows NT 4.0 was mainly on business and school systems, you could still play all those 3D FPS games with a good graphics card. Not as common as gaming on Windows 95 but some people *cough* *cough* would play those games at work, and Windows NT 4.0 with all the service packs installed was pretty darn good and was the same base code as Windows 2000 and XP.

Nvidia Drivers for Windows 95,98,98SE & ME

This is a driver pack (Forceware) for older versions of Windows which great for Retro gamers that want to play on original hardware and Operating Systems to get a genuine experience. When running games from the late 90's and early 2000's there are many glitches when running them on Windows Vista onwards. Some older games have had the 3D Engines ported to new versions of Windows which allow the game to run smoothly one example is Return to Castle Wolfenstein. In any case the drivers are below also there is a list of compatible graphics cards.

ATI (AMD) Radeon HD 2400 Pro Driver Windows 10

Radeon HD 2400 series was based on the codenamed RV610 GPU. It had 180 million transistors on a 65 nm fabrication process. The Radeon HD 2400 series used a 64-bit-wide memory bus. The die size is 85 mm2. The official PCB design implements only a passive-cooling heatsink instead of a fan, and official claims of power consumption are as little as 35 W. The core has 16 kiB unified vertex/texture cache away from dedicated vertex cache and L1/L2 texture cache used in higher end model.

3Dfx Voodoo 5 Drivers

Voodoo 5 5000

The unreleased Voodoo 5 5000 was to be similar to the 5500 but with half of the RAM capacity (32 MB total).

Voodoo 5 5500

The Voodoo 5 5500 comes in three flavors: a universal AGP version (AGP 1/2x, prototypes were made with AGP4x-interface) with full sideband support, PCI, and the Mac Edition, which is only available for PCI, though could run in 66 MHz PCI slots. The Mac Edition has a DVI- and a VGA-A-out, the other versions just have one VGA-out.

3Dfx Voodoo 4 Drivers

Released after the Voodoo 5 5500, the Voodoo4 4500 is the budget implementation of the VSA-100 product. It used only one VSA-100 chip and did not need an additional power connection. It was more expensive yet it was beaten in almost all areas by the GeForce2 MX and Radeon SDR.